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University Biomedical Services (UBS)



Refinement of Blood Sampling-NC3Rs

Blood sampling can be stressful for laboratory animals because of the handling, restraint, anaesthesia or discomfort associated with a particular technique

Topic: Refinement

Handling and Restraint-NC3Rs

Good training in non-aversive handling has benefits for the animal, for the handler and for the reliability of data gained in experiments.

Topic: Refinement

Humane Endpoints-NC3Rs

There are several stages to consider when planning and carrying out studies involving animals to establish, implement and refine humane endpoints.

Topic: Refinement

Welfare assessment-NC3Rs

The term ‘welfare assessment’ applies not only to monitoring animals for signs of pain, suffering and distress associated with procedures, but also to the routine assessment of all animals to check for any health or welfare problems

Topic: Refinement

Euthanasia NC3Rs

The careful selection of the method by which animals are killed is imperative to ensure that the animals are given the most humane death possible.

Topic: Refinement

Analgesia and Pain Assessment-NC3Rs

Considerable progress has been made over the last decade in preventing or alleviating pain. In particular, there is now considerable opportunity to minimise or eliminate pain following surgical procedures. 

Topic: Refinement

Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia for Minor Procedures-EU Module 20 Video
Topic: Refinement

Grimace Scales Research

Research by Dr Jeffrey Mogil and colleagues, McGill University, has demonstrated that changes in facial expression provide a reliable and rapid means of assessing pain in mice, rabbits and rats.

Topic: Refinement

LAS Training e-learning

The website LAS interactive (LAS = Laboratory Animal Science) contains a wide range of information on animals in research and on scientific methods in animal experiments.

Topic: Refinement

3Rs Info Bulletin-Switzerland-Non-invasive electrical monitoring of the population spiking activity in the central nervous system
Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Joint working Group on Refinement

The JWGR organises working groups with experts from industry, academia and animal welfare to prepare reports on a variety of specific topics.

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Reduce Suffering Welfare Assessment Tool

The suffering that animals experience when they are used in research and testing is a very serious concern. We believe that every possible step must be taken to reduce animal suffering to an absolute minimum.

Topic: Refinement

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