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University Biomedical Services (UBS)


Replacing animals with methods which do not involve animal use and avoiding experiments using animals by changing research strategy. The avoidance of animal use may be a first option as complete replacement of animals can take years to achieve, by adaptation of a particular objective to question research or a single test is a first step towards total replacement.

A non-animal technologies roadmap for the UK

Research testing safety and efficacy of a products has traditionally been based on animal studies. In the longer term non-animal technologies (NATs) could potentially replace the use of animals for these purposes.

Adverse Outcome Pathways-

A Pathways-based approaches resource for those using cell-based and computational approaches to investigate how pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals interact with biological systems and the prediction of an adverse outcome within an organism in the absence of animal studies.

The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique

These principles by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in 1958 remain valid today and can be found via the link on The John Hopkins University website. Please note, this website is currently being updated, and link may not work.