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University Biomedical Services (UBS)



Handling and Restraint-NC3Rs

Good training in non-aversive handling has benefits for the animal, for the handler and for the reliability of data gained in experiments.

Topic: Refinement

SABRE Research UK

Systematic reviews: Evidence from animal research is considered by researchers to be of the lowest quality in medical research.

Topic: Reduction

RSPCA Refining Rabbit Welfare

In 2008, the UFAW/RSPCA Rabbit Behaviour and Welfare Group produced a resource that sets out practical guidance on fulfilling the basic needs of the rabbit.

Topic: Refinement

Classic Audiovisual Database-Norina

The Classic AVs database complements NORINA by providing information on audiovisual products produced some years ago, using technology which has been surpassed by modern digital techniques.

Topic: Refinement

Ex Vivo Culture Platform for Assessment of Cartilage Repair Treatment Strategies

There is a great need for valuable ex vivo models that allow for assessment of cartilage repair strategies to reduce the high number of animal experiments.

Topic: Reduction

Humane Endpoints-NC3Rs

There are several stages to consider when planning and carrying out studies involving animals to establish, implement and refine humane endpoints.

Topic: Refinement

New Tools for The Generation of peptide- and Antibody-Based Ligands in Vitro: Reduction of Antibody Production in Experimental Animals
Topic: Reduction

RSPCA Housing and Care Resources

A resource from the research animals department on how housing and care can be refined to reduce suffering and improve welfare of animal species.

Topic: Refinement


FRAME carries out both lab-based and office-based research. Click on the links  for more information.

Topic: Refinement

Animal Tissue Database

Designed to facilitate sharing-SEARCH and SEARCHBreast provide scientists with choices when determining the most robust and relevant models to use when studying human disease.

Topic: Reduction

Welfare assessment-NC3Rs

The term ‘welfare assessment’ applies not only to monitoring animals for signs of pain, suffering and distress associated with procedures, but also to the routine assessment of all animals to check for any health or welfare problems

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA-Research Integrity

‘Research integrity’ is an overarching term relating to the standards to which research is done. It requires every individual to acknowledge their responsibilities as well as being accountable for adhering to legal and ethical principles. 

Topic: Reduction

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