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University Biomedical Services (UBS)



Classic Audiovisual Database-Norina

The Classic AVs database complements NORINA by providing information on audiovisual products produced some years ago, using technology which has been surpassed by modern digital techniques.

Topic: Refinement

Humane Endpoints-NC3Rs

There are several stages to consider when planning and carrying out studies involving animals to establish, implement and refine humane endpoints.

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Housing and Care Resources

A resource from the research animals department on how housing and care can be refined to reduce suffering and improve welfare of animal species.

Topic: Refinement


FRAME carries out both lab-based and office-based research. Click on the links  for more information.

Topic: Refinement

Welfare assessment-NC3Rs

The term ‘welfare assessment’ applies not only to monitoring animals for signs of pain, suffering and distress associated with procedures, but also to the routine assessment of all animals to check for any health or welfare problems

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Telemetry Resourses

Improving welfare for animals used in telemetry studies, including maintaining social groups for instrumented animals, providing enrichment, implications of long-term housing and assessing welfare.

Topic: Refinement

Frame training schools

Recent studies highlight deficiencies in the design and presentation of animal experiments, which have consequences for the validity of the resulting data.

Topic: Refinement

Euthanasia NC3Rs

The careful selection of the method by which animals are killed is imperative to ensure that the animals are given the most humane death possible.

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Rodent Welfare Group

A key aim of the Group is to encourage people to take account of the whole lifetime experience of laboratory rodents, ensuring that every potential impact on their wellbeing has been reviewed and refined.

Topic: Refinement

Procedures With Care Website

This website provides a series of resources to support the adoption of best practice for commonly used procedures in animal research.

Topic: Refinement

Analgesia and Pain Assessment-NC3Rs

Considerable progress has been made over the last decade in preventing or alleviating pain. In particular, there is now considerable opportunity to minimise or eliminate pain following surgical procedures. 

Topic: Refinement

Enrichment Record US

A group of passionate enrichment advocates from academia and industry are the spark for this effort to ignite and excite the laboratory animal community from top to bottom. 

Topic: Refinement

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