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University Biomedical Services (UBS)



Refinement of Blood Sampling-NC3Rs

Blood sampling can be stressful for laboratory animals because of the handling, restraint, anaesthesia or discomfort associated with a particular technique

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Reduce Suffering Welfare Assessment Tool

The suffering that animals experience when they are used in research and testing is a very serious concern. We believe that every possible step must be taken to reduce animal suffering to an absolute minimum.

Topic: Refinement

Norecopa films and videos animal procedures and handling of various animals and procedures
Topic: Refinement

Handling and Restraint-NC3Rs

Good training in non-aversive handling has benefits for the animal, for the handler and for the reliability of data gained in experiments.

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Refining Rabbit Welfare

In 2008, the UFAW/RSPCA Rabbit Behaviour and Welfare Group produced a resource that sets out practical guidance on fulfilling the basic needs of the rabbit.

Topic: Refinement

Classic Audiovisual Database-Norina

The Classic AVs database complements NORINA by providing information on audiovisual products produced some years ago, using technology which has been surpassed by modern digital techniques.

Topic: Refinement

Humane Endpoints-NC3Rs

There are several stages to consider when planning and carrying out studies involving animals to establish, implement and refine humane endpoints.

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Housing and Care Resources

A resource from the research animals department on how housing and care can be refined to reduce suffering and improve welfare of animal species.

Topic: Refinement


FRAME carries out both lab-based and office-based research. Click on the links  for more information.

Topic: Refinement

Welfare assessment-NC3Rs

The term ‘welfare assessment’ applies not only to monitoring animals for signs of pain, suffering and distress associated with procedures, but also to the routine assessment of all animals to check for any health or welfare problems

Topic: Refinement

RSPCA Telemetry Resourses

Improving welfare for animals used in telemetry studies, including maintaining social groups for instrumented animals, providing enrichment, implications of long-term housing and assessing welfare.

Topic: Refinement

Frame training schools

Recent studies highlight deficiencies in the design and presentation of animal experiments, which have consequences for the validity of the resulting data.

Topic: Refinement

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